|Introduction to the World Wide Web|
|Instructor: Lindsay Grace|
The contents of this article are in response to Eric Raymond's The Cathedral and the Bizarre
Article Archived from http://www.macopinion.com/columns/macskeptic/00/07/07/
The Cathedral and the Bizarre
by Jeff Lewis
The OpenSource movement is one of those things I both love and hate. I love the concept - it harkens back to the 70s and how I got into computing. It was a time when almost no one actually owned a computer; we shared access to systems which ran Unix and MTS and other esoteric OSes, or we borrowed time on PDP-8s, and PDP-11s when the University would let us have it. We didn't compete about brand of computer - who could afford our own computer? - we engaged in friendly competition trying to improve each other's code.
That all changed in the late 70's when a young programmer actually had the audacity to sell his BASIC interpreter to the other programmers rather than just giving it and the source code for it away. He went away and sold it to Altair and Apple and well... the rest, as they say, is history. With the IBM-PC making microcomputing respectable in 1981 (running an OS owned by, although not written by, that same young programmer), the die was cast and computing was changed in a fundamental way. Creating software, even for recreational purposes, was tied to making money - and nothing kills the notion of community faster than putting a price on it.
Some people, like Richard Stallman, have always tried to keep a bit of this spirit alive - admittedly, it must be like fighting uphill in an avalanche. But it wasn't until Linux that the OpenSource movement really kicked in. Sure, there were lots of other OpenSource projects before Linux - BSD, GNU, and while Linux relies on GNU for a lot of its tools, the truth is that none of these projects ever managed to capture the heart of people like Linux.
Which leads me to the 'hate' part. There's a growing fanaticism within the OpenSource community which is starting to smell almost as bad as the fanaticism it tries to combat.
Bruno! Never kill a customer!
Eric Raymond's comments at MacHack were wonderfully telling in several ways. He criticised Mac programmers for being too focussed on user interface and criticised MacOS for intertwining the UI with system functionality, making it harder for new programmers to get on board writing MacOS apps.
Interestingly, the number one problems with Linux, from a consumer perspective, are that it doesn't have a standardised UI; its tools are simply too difficult to use and configure, and it requires far too much upfront learning to get up to speed. The last is the most telling: the Linux model moves the cost of learning from the developer to the user.
As for upfront developer time, well, that's true - it is harder to learn MacOS than it is to learn, say, the ANSI C libraries... but in truth, Raymond overstates the issue. In fact, MacOS can be divided in several large chunks. I regularly write 'console' apps in MacOS to do little tasks which don't warrant a lot of UI. I also have several shells for drag and drop functionality which handles all that sort of stuff. In fact, I tend to stick to the ANSI C libraries. There are some deficits in MacOS, relative to the 'standard' libraries - MacOS has overwhelmingly complex networking support compared to sockets and streams, but it also offers more complex functionality.
Ironically, it's the focus on UI, perhaps taken to obsession, which gives MacOS its edge over... well, it has to be said this way - over all other OSes. Windows comes close, but misses simply because Windows developers really do not have that obsession to make the UI perfect. Linux and the various X-Window interfaces rarely even come close. The obsession with sticking to a standard behaviour means that MacOS users experience a consistency of behaviour that no other OS can offer (although again, Windows is getting closer - Linux is not even close).
Why the obsession? Simple. The customer is the reason for the software. The customer must never be punished for choosing your software. That means that the UI experience must be compelling. It has to be refined. It should, as much as possible, anticipate without being annoying (which is where Windows applications - especially Microsoft's - fall down... They're just a little too eager to anticipate and help). The customer isn't likely to be using just your software, which means you have to play nice with the other software. You can't strongarm the customer by only supporting a proprietary format. You can't have a wildly different UI and behaviour because you'll throw the user off.
At least Raymond does admit that the OpenSource community can learn something about UI from Mac programmers... I hope they can also learn something about real world customers.
Sure, it's getting better, but let's put this in perspective: Linux has been around for five or six years. The IBM-PC was created in 1981. The Lisa was released in 1983. The Mac in 1984. By 1985, Microsoft, Digital Research, Commodore-Amiga and Atari (by way of DRI) all had GUI based computers, or GUI based interfaces for their computers, and had established guidelines for UI. Admittedly, Microsoft's was particularly bad (trust me, Windows 1.0 was stunningly horrible), but then Microsoft - even though their own developers hated it - managed to evolve and improve it. In five years, we went from no computer having a UI to all computers used by the general public having a GUI based OS - and three of four being pretty decent ones at at that.
Linux, on the other hand, pops up around 1995 after the GUI market had twelve years of development - and promptly reinvents the wheel and badly at that. (In defense of Linus Torvalds, he wasn't trying to build a consumer OS, he was trying to create a freely available Unix-like kernel in the spirit of Andrew Tannenbaum's Minix, which had been the hot mini-OS on Atari and Amiga computers...)
The core 'advantage' Raymond puts forward, many programmers improving the code, many eyes looking for bugs, is also its chief weakness. Programmers - at least the kind who are likely to get involved in OpenSource project - are a notoriously independent lot. They love to do their own thing and always think they have a better way to do things.
Normally, this is an advantage because, with filtering and discipline, this is from whence the fountain of creativity which drives this industry comes. Unchecked and unfiltered, though, and you have unbridled chaos. As a result, you have no less than six different desktop systems and two different configuration systems and tools whose command line options change not only from system flavour - but from revision to revision. Perl is the best example of this - when they went to version five, they changed the language syntax in a way which broke existing code. Perl itself is a testimony to the OpenSource mindset - it's a gruesome mishmash of inconsistent syntax and function calls - definitely a product designed by committee - but one wherein each member clearly wasn't listening to anyone else.
Raymond touts the stability of Linux as proof of the OpenSource concept, but that's a bit misleading. The core of Linux was written by one person - Linus Torvalds. Moreover, there is a small group who shepherds the contributions to the kernel to keep it stable and clean. In other words, there's a priesthood at the top of the bazaar. If you check into each successful OpenSource project, you see the same thing: a small group of referees who filter the input and weed out the bad ideas. The bazaar has cops. The chaos is contained.
When you get a company the size of Apple or Microsoft, you have thousands of developers who do peer review of code. You have the referees who determine what goes in to a product and what doesn't... but they have one thing that the OpenSource method doesn't: they have markets to answer to.
Who ordered that?
See, when commercial developers create a product, they start by trying to solve a problem that customers need solved. The focus is always on the customer. What do they need? What do they want (which isn't always the same thing :)? Can they use this software? How much handholding will they need to make this work? Can we make this experience so great that the competition can't sway them back?
This last is another flaw with OpenSource - the lack of competition. Let me start by saying that it's very weird to be saying this - I'm not a big fan of the competitive model, but there are times when it works. The advantage of competition is that it keeps you on your toes. It forces you to pay attention to what the consumers want. Yet in OpenSource, there isn't really any direct competition. Everything goes into the pool, good and bad. If you have a good idea, everyone else gets that good idea and it gets merged into all products - even the bad ones. This means that the real differentiation for OpenSource isn't marketshare or even marketability, but simply whether or not it can garner a following.
That tends to happen whenever someone first solves a problem. People jump on the bandwagon and promote the software, and the crowd grows and grows - often way out of proportion to the quality of the solution. Perl, again, is an excellent example of this. It's really a terrible language - badly.. ok... not designed, clumsy and arbitrary. But it works - is better than shell scripting, and more powerful than awk... and it was the first serious attempt at such a language. So it went platinum with a bullet.
The problem there is that the 'capitalist trench' problem is just as real in OpenSource as it is in commerical product: once a group buys into a specific solution, the cost of changing grows with time. That's true even if the software is 'free' because the maintenance costs and time to convert to another solution are not.
You want fries with that operating system?
The other core point Raymond tried to make is that software is a service industry. To be honest, this is a disturbing concept in several ways.
First, let me ask you a question: if you make your living by selling service on software, what's the motivation to make the software as easy to operate and maintain as possible? The answer? Well - not much. And so we have Linux. Very powerful. Very flexible. Very hard for average computer users to configure and maintain.
Now, that's not to say that commercial developers always have a motivation to make their software easier... I would argue that any software which needs a certification program is bad software. Any software which needs an entire section at Chapters (errr, Computer Literacy... Barnes and Nobel) devoted to rack after rack of MSCE books, cheat cards and training CDs (and it's not just Microsoft - Novell started this idea, but everyone is getting into it - Cisco just joined the gang) is badly written from a user's perspective.
Actually, let me go back to Cisco for a moment. Cisco used to have a great freeware configuration tool. You could download it from their website. That tool has quietly vanished and has been replaced with CiscoWorks and of course, Cisco certified training. A very ominous trend.
There are also many kinds of software which have lifespans just too short to make it sensible to bind the customer in a service agreement. Games are a good example. Most games are onetime sells. You can do a little addon with cheatbooks, or tie-in products, but for every Quake, there's a thousand other games which get a moment of success, then fade away.
While Raymond cites Doom as an example of a product which revived itself by going OpenSource, he conveniently forgets that Doom was a very successful commercial product for a long time - both as shareware and commercialware. It was after it had saturated its market and had been surpassed by newer games and technologies that the authors decided it could be put into OpenSou rce, both to give new game developers a hand learning some of the tricks and to let people who just wanted to play around have a toy. It did generate an aftermarket, but it's questionable as to how much revenue that aftermarket generates.
He does cite the large number of addon and tie-in products Doom generated, and yes, that's an argument for opening up a product to some degree - I'm all for open formats and interchangable files, but that's a long leap from fully open source on a commercial product.
Quality means many things
OpenSource fans tend to believe that they are quality fanatics, but what definition of quality are we using? To them, the most important kind of quality is stability - software shouldn't crash. The problem is that OpenSource software does crash. Does it crash less often than say, a Mac app? Well, probably, but most OpenSource projects tend to be much simpler and smaller than Mac apps and in general, tend to be very minimalistic. So they have the 'quality' of simplicity - for the programmer, but the lack of quality for the end user.
The argument is that since everyone who uses the software has the source, if you find a bug you can fix it then submit the bug fix to someone and it becomes part of the product - if you can figure out who to contact. But there again, we see a confusion as to whom the customer is: most people who use computers do not know how to program in BASIC, let alone C or C++, and more importantly - they do not want to. They buy a computer to solve a problem - to get work done - not to debug someone's code.
Ironically, when commercial developers release applications which are clearly not 100%, we accuse them of forcing the customer to be beta testers, but in a sense, OpenSource assumes you're not only going to be a tester; you're going to be a programmer and fix the bug!
Raymond points out that Windows 2000, which reportedly shipped with 63,000 bugs, shows that OpenSource works because under Brook's "Law", the number of bugs is roughly proportional to the square of the number of programmers. Since Linux has 40,000 developers working on it - there should be 2 billion bugs in Linux. The flaw is that he perceives Linux as a collection of small projects, but sees Win2K as a single monolithic application - much as he seems to see MacOS. In reality, Win2K and MacOS aren't monolithic. They are composed of many smaller parts which are handled by smaller teams. Much like Linux.
As for comparing bug counts - at least Microsoft has a bug count. If Raymond had bothered to check the number, he'd have found that a rather large proportion of the 63,000 bugs are cosmetic - and none were considered 'showstoppers'. We don't even have a way to determine the real bug count for Linux since there's no central repository for this sort of information.
There is another system...
Apple has taken the fruit of the OpenSource movement - BSD Unix, and added their own proprietary components which address the shortcomings of BSD, from the perspective of the typical Mac user. They're bringing UI consistency to the 'Wild West' and making a UI a required part of the Unix experience. Old time Unix fans will find this unpleasent and even undesirable, but this is the future.
Eric Raymond made one other comment: that the elitism of Mac programmers is a danger to its long term survival... and I ask him - where has be been? This same 'elitism' is what pulled us into a GUI based world of computing. It's what made computing accessable to the average person. This sounds like a weird echo of the 'Apple is doomed' argument we used to hear so often - but in case he's missed it - Apple is still here and doing better than ever.
Yes, OpenSource is important. Yes, it has much to contribute and provides a way for non-commercial development to happen. Personally, as I've said before, I think it's the most important new development in computing... but it's not the future until it learns who the customer is. Apple has made a couple of slips in that area with Aqua and the new Quicktime, but at least they admit that they made an error and have backed off. They embraced OpenSource and made it work for them.
Not bad for a cathedral.