Survey of Design and Media Art
Instructor: Lindsay Grace

Transcript of Graphic Design History

This document is a transcript of the presentation on graphic design history. Links to some of the images displayed in class are available at the end of each section.

Graphic Design History


History of Graphic Design
From the 1st printing press to modern technology
Delimited by social, political, technological Milestones
The tasks of the graphic designer evolved
Bringing in and out of scope specific aspects of the art

History of Graphic Design
Books were valuable and rare

3 Factors made mass production of text important

Wood block printing
The printing press
Johan Gensfliesch zum Gutenberg
42 Line Bible
Letters of Indulgence

Letter of Indulgence
1460 – 1520: The incunabula
Presses spread through Europe

Gutenberg Press Image

The Industrial Revolution

The Industrial Revolution (1760 – 1840)
Lithography / “Stone printing” invented (1796)
Photography Invented (circa 1822)
Joseph Niepce
Louis Daguerre
Daguerreotypes invented circa 1839

James McNeill Whistler (1834-1903 )
Part of the Art Institute of Chicago’s Collection

Victorian Era
1819 – 1901
Decorative Extravagance
Strong moral and religious beliefs
Often contradicting aesthetic styles
Gothic Influence
Grand Style

Lithograph | Daguerreotype | Victorian Era Packaging | Victorian Era Print

Post Industrial Revolution

Arts and Crafts Movement
Philosophical revolt against the industrial revolution
Celebration of individual craftsmanship and design
William Morris, book designer who spearheaded the movement
Eastman Kodak
Introduced a mass marketed, low cost camera (circa 1888)

William Morris (1834 – 1896)
Art Nouveau
1890 – 1910
Organic forms
Comes to America via the covers of Harpers Scribner’s Magazine
A spirit with often imitated aesthetic qualities
By 1910, highly imitated and mass produced

William Morris Art | Peter Behrens the Kiss

Modernist Era

Early 20th Century
Reactions to Art Nouveau
Peter Behrens
Influence of Modern Art
The Art and Craft of the Machine
Frank Lloyd Wright
“The invention of printing was the greatest event in history.”
“It was the first great machine, after the great city.”-Frank Lloyd Wright

Pablo Picasso, 1955
Futurist Poetry
World War 1 and World War 2
Recruitment Posters
Challenge of encouraging people to enlist
Images of empowerment and adventure
New female roles
Norman Rockwell
American Consumer Culture
Began around the turn of the 20th century
Mass production required businesses to create demand through advertising
Catalog Production
The Saturday Evening Post
Norman Rockwell
United States Advertising

Frank Lloyd Wright Book | Futurist Poetry

1950 to Present / New York Era

Corporate Identity
The establishment of brands and national or multinational identity
Corporate Identity
The Digital Realm (1980s)
Personal computers offered in 1982
Desktop publishing first coined (circa 1985)
1984: first Apple Macintosh
1984: first Laser Jet Printer (Hewlett Packard)
1985:Adobe introduces PostScript
1985: Aldus introduces PageMaker for the Mac

Digital Influence
Web Publishing, Design, and more Powerful Computers
1993, Mozilla Project Completed, first Web Browser Introduced
New issues in design
Computer Graphics
Technical aspects
Lower resolution
Fewer colors (initially)
Existence only in the digital world

Paul Rand Logos